Sunday, March 30, 2008
History Is Written By The Winners
The NET foreign Security Purchases is only the US dollar reserves that have piled up in the US dollar reserve accounts of the Foreign central banks.
The rest of the 10's of Billions of dollars exported out of the USA are used to buy US dollar denominated assets or commodities. The US dollar was made the Global trade medium of exchange in 1944 at Bretton Woods...
After the Revolutionary war the USA was just as dependant upon the Import Export trade with Jolly old England as it was Before...The only thing the USA was not dependant upon after the revolutionary war was the British parliament for the rules of the game...The USA could make up the rules of the game...
The British East India company started the Revolutionary war...To of course break free from the British parliament Or His majesty's Government.
"The famed "Grand Union" flag hoisted near Washington's headquarters at Cambridge on 2 January 1776 turned out to be exactly the same as the flag that the East India Company had used ... on the other side of the world ... since 1701. The design is essentially a red ensign (minus, of course, the X of St. Patrick at that time) with the red field divided into 13 red-and-white stripes: the same pattern as the later U.S. flag, once the canton changed to "a new constellation."
While George Washington's headquarters were in Cambridge, the flag was not hoisted at his headquarters, but on nearby Prospect Hill in Somerville, so it would be prominently visible for miles around.
"We re-enact the flag-raising every January 1 and have a great time celebrating our proud history."
--Linda Gritz, 2 January 2004
On June 14, 1777, in order to establish an official flag for the new nation, the Continental Congress passed the first Flag Act: "Resolved, That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."
"An artist drew a picture of the Green Dragon Tavern. Below it he wrote these words:
"Where we met to Plan the Consignment of a few Shiploads of Tea, Dec 16, 1773"
In the upper left hand corner of his drawing he put a square and compass. To this day no one knows who planned the Boston Tea Party.
"The building had been purchased by the St. Andrews Lodge in 1764. There was a square and compass over the front door and a copper Dragon that had turned green through the weather. It was a community center. Downstairs was the Tavern. Upstairs was the St. Andrews Lodge and the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (Ancients). It was the largest place for meetings in the north east end of Boston. Historians have called it "headquarters of the American Revolution."
No one knows who the "Chiefs" were that commanded the "Indians."
Just a mile from the Potomac River, in Alexandria, Virginia and overlooking the nation's capitol, stands the 333 ft. George Washington Masonic National Memorial on historic Shooters Hill. ...
Who did the British Parliament give the monopoly on tea to?
In May 1773, Prime Minister North and the British parliament passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists.
Below the famed "Grand Union" flag of the British East India Company...And another clue...
The British East India Company's Opium Monopoly
...The opium juice was processed into a form suitable for smoking, and formed into three pound cakes, which were then wrapped in poppy pedals. Forty of these cakes were loaded into chests, each stamped with the symbol of the East India Company.
In a completely transparent fraud of ``free trade,'' the Company then auctioned off these chests to ``country traders,'' (whom it pretended were independent), at roughly four times the cost of production. These traders were licensed by the Company, and in some cases financed by it. The Company would even give the ``country traders'' opium on consignment, and collect payment in Canton (Guangzhou) after the opium had been sold...
What the British Will Never Forget
...The first major shipment of opium, was arranged in 1781, by the Company's Governor-General, Warren Hastings, who described opium as a ``pernicious'' commodity, ``which the wisdom of the Government should carefully restrain from internal consumption..."
...By 1804, the revenues from opium sales to China, were sufficient to cover the cost of tea, imported from China. Between 1804 and 1806, $7 million were transferred out of China...
...The opium trade increased from 4,244 chests in the 1820-21 season to 18,956 by 1830-31. By 1831, the opium trade into China was two-and-a-half times greater than the tea trade. It was probably the largest trade in a single commodity anywhere in the world...
William Jardine: "Iron-Headed Old Rat"
The largest of the ``country traders'' was Jardine, Matheson & Co. William Jardine and James Matheson formed a partnership in 1828. Matheson was the first to see the potential of smuggling along the entire Chinese coast. Matheson blamed the Chinese dislike for ``free trade'' to their ``marvellous degree of imbecility and avarice, conceit and obstinacy.'' Jardine was nicknamed ``Iron-Headed Old Rat'' by the Chinese...
...Matheson used his opium fortune to become the second largest landholder in Great Britain, and was made a Baron by Queen Victoria...
...By the late 1830's, there was no doubt that opium was leading to the destruction of China. By 1836, opium shipments were more than 30,000 chests, enough to supply 12.5 million smokers. The Chinese imperial army lost a battle against local rebels because the army was addicted to opium. The financial drain on China was disrupting the entire economy. From 1829 to 1840, Chinese exports had brought in 7 million silver dollars, but imports, mainly opium had drained 56 million...
Creating a Pretext for War
Elliot sought to establish a pretext for war other than the defense of opium, arguing that the issue was the Chinese demand that British merchants be subject to ``barbaric'' Chinese law. He instructed British merchants to hand over their, in fact, unsalable opium stockpiles, with the promise that the British government would reimburse them for their loss...
...While Matheson continued the company's smuggling operations from the new base at Hong Kong, Jardine was sent to London, as the representative of all the opium smugglers, to rally support for war. The propaganda he spread in London, was that honest British merchants were being besieged, imprisoned, deprived of food, and actually threatened with death. He rallied British cotton merchants that war was necessary to ``open China'' to imports of British cloth...
...The British carried out a series of attacks on Chinese cities using the fleet to destroy obsolete Chinese fortifications, and then threaten the cities with destruction unless they paid ransom. The British moved cannon to the edge of Canton, and forced the city to pay a ransom of $6 million. Shanghai paid $300,000, ransom but was still severely looted...
...The Chinese refused to even discuss the legalization of opium. The Emperor responded: "Gain-seeking and corrupt men will for profit and sensuality defeat my wishes, but nothing will induce me to derive a revenue from the vice and misery of my people..."
...In the period following the first Opium War, Hong Kong was avoided by tea or silk traders, and instead served as a center for opium smuggling, gambling, prostitution and piracy. The Governor of Hongkong reported that "almost every person possessed of capital who is not connected with government employ is employed in the opium trade."
In the treaty ending the second Opium War, the Chinese were forced to accept the legalization of opium. With Chinese resistance broken, large scale opium production in China was begun, supposedly to stop the drain on silver caused by opium imports. Both imports and domestic production soared, with imports reaching 105,508 chests by 1880. It is conservatively estimated, that China's opium-addicts numbered between 30 and 40 million, at that time...
...Opium remained at the head of the list, averaging 10 million pounds sterling a year during the 1880's. By 1900, a great part of government revenues went to pay indemnities, imposed on China by various "peace" treaties.
Opium went hand-in-hand with foreign conquest and revolution. China was rapidly broken apart by the centrifugal forces introduced by the effects of British looting. From 1850 to 1860, China was racked by revolts by the Taiping and Triad gangs. Deaths from the chaos are estimated to have been several tens of millions. Many provinces lost more than half their population. By 1916, China was so shattered, that when nationalists around Sun Yat-sen attempted to set up a Republic, the greatest problem was to unite the country.
Adam Smith, An apologist for the British East India Company
... Adam Smith, in his Wealth of Nations, followed this belief, that human behavior was best ordered by each man following his hedonistic desires to their lawful conclusion. He argued that opium was a legitimate product, the same as any other commodity, that the objective laws of the "invisible hand" must be allowed to determine all economic activity, and anything which stood in the way, such as national governments, were an obstacle which must be removed.
Bit of a stretch?
It's up to you to know.
No one can magically make you know...Others can make you think you know but it's up to you to know.
It's up to you to choose the path you are on...Not me...
I know...you don't.
You can choose to or not to...Know.
History is a bit of a stretch and most of it is written by the winners...
You choose to believe the accounts written by the winners to be a winner...
I don't play games so I don't have a need to believe anything other than Truth.
I don't post everything...It's up to you to choose to make the journey of 1000 miles by taking the first step...I help...
Those that want to be or want more power than they have are Evil and will do almost anything to obtain what they want and to sustain it once they have it.
They will lie to others and themselves. They will tell you what the fantasy at the end of the rainbow looks like.
Hitler told the population of Germany what the fantasy at the end of the rainbow would look like if he was given enough power to make it into reality.
Germany was a smoldering ruin pile when the means to the ends produced the only ends that the means employed to achieve the ends could possibly produce.
The revolutionary war cost...The Seditionists needed funds to fund the revolutionary war...Ben Franklin was a printer by trade.
Ben's Idea? Continentals were printed to fund the war and they were deposited in Commercial banks in the colonies allowing the commercial banks to create massive amounts of credit which lead to massive price inflation...when the revolutionary war ended April 19, 1775 to September 3, 1783 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris...The need to fund it ended and the supply of Continentals that the commercial banks needed dried up and the hyperinflated Economy suffered a hyperdeflationary collapse...poof...
Highlights of the Treaty...
"His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof."
Ok I own. You put a gun in my face and I change my mind and "relinquish all claims" over what I did own that you now own...then a year or two later you need some money and begin selling it back to me little by little...Until a centruy or so later my heirs and successors own it all again...
So that was not a very good deal ultimately...
"It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted."
What is this? All that the colonies owed prior to the "dust up" still has to be paid...And not in Continentals...Sterling money...a.k.a. Silver...Since jolly old England was on the pound sterling standard and not on the Continental standard...
"It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession on his Majesty's arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.
And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights."
So all the crown loyalists that were against the Seditionists or the "Enemy"...were not anymore...So it appears that large portions of the 13 colonies were retained as Crown assets reguardless of His Brittanic Majesty relinquishing all claims...
"That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued."
Complete and total amnesty...Like really I could have been about to be hanged for a massacre and then saved by ratification and come out smelling like a rose...Untouchable...And the New Government has to make sure that no one seeking justice for my crimes can obtain it...Now that is liberty folks...
"The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States."
Guess His Brittanic Majesty gets the Mississippi...forever or the treaty is game over...
B. FRANKLIN was one of the signers of the Treaty of Paris.
The treaty is filled with gaping loopholes that can easily be "capitalized" on and were over the decades...
"Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 – July 12, 1804) was an American politician, leading statesman, financier, intellectual, military officer, and founder of the Federalist Party. One of America's foremost constitutional lawyers, he was an influential delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787 and was the leading author of the Federalist Papers (1788), which has been the single most important interpretation of the Constitution ever since."
"He was the first and most influential Secretary of the Treasury and had much influence over the rest of the Government and the formation of policy, including foreign policy. With a vision of using federal power to modernize the nation, he convinced Congress to use an elastic interpretation of the Constitution to pass far-reaching laws. They included the creation of a national debt, federal assumption of the state debts, creation of a (Central) national bank, and a system of taxes through a tariff on imports and a tax on whiskey that would pay for it all. In foreign affairs he favored the British; he devised Jay's instructions for the treaty of 1794"
"The Bank bill (First Central bank of the USA...The Federal Reserve is the Third central bank of the USA excluding the Bank of North America during the Revolutionary war) was introduced into Congress on December 13, 1790, passed the Senate on January 20, 1791, the House on February 8, 1791, and therefore was forwarded to President Washington for his signature. It was unclear whether Washington would sign the bill into law. Powerful forces led by James Madison, Thomas Jefferson and the Attorney General, Edmund Randolph, argued to Washington that the Constitution had not granted the government the power to incorporate a Bank and therefore he should not sign the bill."
"The First (Central) Bank of the United States was needed because the government had a debt from the Revolutionary War (A crown operation), and each state had a different form of currency. It was built while Philadelphia was still the nation's capital. Alexander Hamilton conceived of the bank to handle the colossal war debt — and to create a standard form of currency."
"The First Bank's charter was drafted in 1791 by the Congress and signed by George Washington"
"This was a private Bank of which there were 25,000 shares issued of which 18,000 were held by those in England. The Bank loaned the United States money in exchange for Securities of the United States.
"Now the creditors of the United States which included the King wanted paid the Interest on the loans that were given to the United States. So Alexander Hamilton came up with the great idea of taxing alcohol.The people resisted so George Washington sent out the militia to collect the tax which they did. This has become known as the Whiskey rebellion."
Alexander Hamilton's business career began in 1768 when he became a clerk in the counting house of Nicholas Cruger. Cruger took a trip off-island in 1771-1772, leaving young Hamilton (16 years old) in charge of business affairs for six months. He displayed a remarkable flair for business and leadership skills that involved dealing with senior ship captains and businessmen on an equal basis.
In 1773, Hamilton attended a college-preparatory program with Francis Barber in Elizabeth, New Jersey; he was admitted to Princeton in rural New Jersey but instead attended King's College (later renamed Columbia College) in New York City
The institution was established in 1754 as King's College and is one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the United States. During the early years of its history, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Gouverneur Morris, and Robert Livingston studied at King's (Columbia.)
"Controversy surrounded the founding of the new college in New York, as it was a thoroughly Anglican institution dominated by the influence of Crown officials, such as the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Crown Secretary for Plantations and Colonies, in its governing body. The fears of an Anglican episcopacy and Crown influence in America through King's College were confirmed by its vast wealth, far surpassing all other colonial colleges of the period."
"After the Revolutionary war, he served as a member of the Congress of the Confederation (from 1782 to 1783), and then retired to open his own law office in New York City. He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v. Waddington, in which he largely defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who occupied it during the occupation of New York; pleading that the Mayor's Court should interpret state law to be consistent with the peace treaty (Paris Treaty of 1783 signed after the Revolutionary war).
"In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, now the oldest ongoing banking organization in the United States, and was also instrumental, along with John Jay, in the revitalization of King's College, which had been severely crippled by the war and discredited for its Tory affiliations"
"On the advice of financier Robert Morris President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton served in the Treasury Department from September 11, 1789, until January 31, 1795. It is for his tenure as Treasury secretary, as well as his contributions to the Federalist Papers, that Hamilton is considered one of America's greatest early statesmen. He was in many ways Washington's most trusted advisor, handling critical domestic and foreign policies, and writing drafts of important messages such as Washington's Farewell Address in 1796. In 1794 he designed a "bold initiative", the Jay Treaty that "ushered in a new era of prosperity for Anglo-American trade," and resolved left-over issues from the Revolution. He fought Jefferson and Madison in the matter--they favored France--thus setting up foreign policy as a major dispute between the parties."
"Hamilton's term was marked by innovation, planning and masterful reports. In office for barely a month, he proposed the creation of a seagoing branch of the military to discourage smuggling and enhance tax collections. The following summer, Congress authorized a Revenue Marine force of ten cutters, the precursor to the United States Coast Guard. He also played a crucial role in creating the United States Navy (the Naval Act of 1794). Hamilton's perceptive and creative mind, coupled with a driving ambition to set his ideas in motion, resulted in many proposals to Congress. His proposals included a plan for tariffs and excise taxes (on whiskey especially) for raising revenue, and funding the Revolutionary War debt including debts owed by the states. He developed the plans for the First Bank of the United States and secured its adoption by Congress."
"Robert Morris, Jr. (January 31, 1734 - May 8, 1806) was an American merchant and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Morris was known as the Financier of the Revolution, because of his role in securing financial assistance for the American Colonial side in the Revolutionary War."
"At age 16 Morris was already apprenticed to the shipping and banking firm of the wealthy Philadelphia merchant (later mayor) Charles Willing. After Willing's death four years later, the 20-year-old Morris became the partner of Charles's son, Thomas Willing."
"In a unanimous vote, Congress appointed Morris to be Superintendent of Finance of the United States from 1781 to 1784. When Morris began this post the US was in a crisis. The British controlled the coast line from the sea, two major cities, and the western frontier. The treasury was in debt by $2.5 million and public credit had collapsed. Congress resultantly gave Mr. Morris great power and allowed him to continue his profitable private endeavors while serving in a related public office."
"Three days after becoming Superintendent of Finance Morris proposed the establishment of a national bank. This led to the creation of the first financial institution chartered by the United States, the (Central) Bank of North America, in 1782. The bank was funded in part by a significant loan Morris had obtained from France in 1781. The initial role of the bank was to finance the war against Britain."
During his tenure as Superintendent, Morris was assisted by his friend and assistant Gouverneur Morris. He proposed a national economic system in a document called "On Public Credit". This acted as the basis for Hamilton's plan of the same name submitted much later.
On January 15, 1782 Morris drafted a proposal that he later presented to the Continental Congress to recommend the establishment of a national mint and decimal coinage. However, the United States Mint was not established until 1792, after further proposals by Hamilton.
Along with Alexander Hamilton and Albert Gallatin, Morris is considered one of the key founders of the financial system in the United States.
Thomas Willing (December 19, 1731 - January 19, 1821) was an American merchant and financier and a Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania.
Born in Philadelphia, Willing completed preparatory studies in Bath, England. He studied law in London at the Inner Temple (The City of London, the Crown, Where the Bank of England is)
City of London The New World Financial system
"The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, which may call members to the Bar [Rumor that "BAR" is code for British Accredited Registry] and so entitle them to practise as barristers. [The other Inns are Middle Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn.]"
"The Temple was occupied in the twelfth century by the Knights Templar, who gave the area its name, and built the Temple Church which survives as the parish church of the Inner Temple and Middle Temple"
The City of London is now London's main financial district. It is often referred to as just the City or as the Square Mile, as it is approximately one square mile (2.6 square kilometres) in area The City itself has two independent enclaves within it — Inner Temple and Middle Temple. These two areas form part of the City and Ceremonial county, but are not governed by the Corporation of London. The Corporation governs the rest of the City and also owns various open spaces (parks, forests and commons) in and around London.
The City developed its own code of law for the mercantile classes, developing such autonomy that Sir Laurence Gomme regarded the City as a separate Kingdom making its own laws. The Lord Mayor of the City is supreme...
Its Latin motto is "Domine dirige nos" which means "Lord, direct us".
Thomas Willing As a member of the Continental Congress in 1775 and 1776, he voted against the Declaration of Independence.
Later, he became president of the (Central) Bank of North America and then the first president of the (First Central) Bank of the United States 1791 to 1811.
"The Bank of North America was chartered in 1781 by the Continental Congress and opened on January 7, 1782, at the prodding of Finance Minister Robert Morris, and was rechartered in 1784. This was thus the first modern (Central) United States bank. It was succeeded by the First Bank of the United States. After Robert Morris became superintendent of finance in May 1781 continental currency had ceased."
Meanwhile, Hamilton made public endorsement of the establishment:
"Congress have wisely appointed a superintendent of their finances,—a man of acknowledged abilities and integrity, as well as of great personal credit and pecuniary influence.
"It was impossible that the business of finance could be ably conducted by a body of men however well composed or well intentioned. Order in the future management of our moneyed concerns, a strict regard to the performance of public engagements, and of course the restoration of public credit may be reasonably and confidently expected from Mr. Morris' administration if he is furnished with materials upon which to operate—that is, if the Federal Government can acquire funds as the basis of his arrangements. He has very judiciously proposed a (Central bank) National Bank, which, by uniting the influence and interest of the moneyed men with the resources of government, can alone give it that durable and extensive credit of which it stands in need. This is the best expedient he could have devised for relieving the public embarrassments, but to give success to the plan it is essential that Congress should have it in their power to support him with unexceptionable funds. Had we begun the practice of funding four years ago, we should have avoided that depreciation of the currency which has been pernicious to the morals and to the credit of the nation, and there is no other method than this to prevent a continuance and multiplication of the evils flowing from that prolific source."
- 'The Continentalist' No. IV, August 30, 1781
Morris deposited large quantities of gold and silver coin and bills of exchange obtained through loans from the Netherlands and France. He then issued new paper currency backed by this supply. He also managed to meet the interest rates on the debt which he estimated to be about thirty million dollars. (Thats about 20 million ouces of silver) First Bank of The United States and The Bank of New York obtained the first shares in the New York Stock Exchange.
The First bank of the USA was located for a brief time in Carpenters' Hall... The First Congress of the United Colonies of North America—the First Continental Congress—met from September through October of 1774 there as well.
"The Hall has been owned and operated by the Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia since 1770. This organization, embodying the legacy of the European medieval guild system, was founded in 1724 and remains the oldest extant trade guild in the United States."
Below are a couple of clues...
At the time of the revolutionary war the below was the slogan promoted in the mass media.
You are either with them or against them...simple.
Currently you all are basically drugged, in a trance, and oblivious as to what is about to hit you all...Most of you will be annihilated by the psychological shock when the mass delusion you currently take for granted shatters.
The second Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, and on that day, in secret session, the measure was agreed upon, but the resolution was not formed and adopted until June 22, the day on which news of the battle on Breed's Hill was received by the Congress. Then it was resolved
"that a sum not exceeding 2,000,000 Spanish milled dollars be emitted by the Congress in bills of credit for the defence of the America,"
"the twelve confederate colonies [Georgia was not then represented] be pledged for the redemption of the bills of credit now directed to be emitted."
Each colony was required to pay its proportion, in four annual payments, the first by the last of November, 1779, and the last by the end of November, 1782. A committee appointed for the occasion reported the following day the annexed resolution:
"Resolved, that the number and denominations of the bills be as follows:
49,000 bills of 8 dollars each ... $392,000
49,000 bills of 7 dollars each ... 343,000
49,000 bills of 6 dollars each ... 294,000
49,000 bills of 5 dollars each ... 245,000
49,000 bills of 4 dollars each ... 196,000
49,000 bills of 3 dollars each ... 147,000
49,000 bills of 2 dollars each ... 98,000
49,000 bills of 1 dollar each ... 49,000
11,800 bills of 20 dollars each ... 236,000
Total, 403,800 ... $2,000,000
"Resolved, that the form of the bill be as follows:
This Bill entitles the Bearer to receive ———— Spanish milled Dollars, or the value thereof...
"A committee was appointed to procure the plates and superintend the printing of the bills. The plates were engraved by Paul Revere, of Boston. The paper was so thick that the British called it "the pasteboard currency of the rebels." The size of the bills averaged about 3-1/2 by 2-3/4 inches, having a border composed partly of repetitions of the words "Continental Currency." On the face of each bill was a device (a separate one for each denomination) significant in design and legend; for example, within a circle a design representing a hand planting a tree, and the legend "Posteritat" — for posterity. Twenty-eight gentlemen were appointed to sign these bills. New issues were made at various times until the close of 1779, when the aggregate amount was $242,000,000."
The spanish milled dollar? Constructed from the silver looted by the Spanish self proclaimed Bond servants of Jesus from the Aztec and Incan civilizations which the Spanish annihilated in the looting for Jesus operation...
It was the most abundant coin in the New World...
The US dollar showed up in 1792 by decree...The coinage act of 1792 and the US Dollar was decreed to be...
"Dollars or Units—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenths parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver."
so 371 grains X 242,000,000 = 89,782,000,000 grains/480 grains per troy ounce = 187,045,833 ounces of silver that no one had to spend especially the continental congress...
Taxation without representation? How about Hypocrisy without representation? What was the solution? See below...
"The First Bank of the United States was needed because the government had a debt from the Revolutionary War, and each state had a different form of currency. It was built while Philadelphia was still the nation's capital. Alexander Hamilton conceived of the bank to handle the colossal war debt — and to create a standard form of currency."
"The First Bank's charter was drafted in 1791 by the Congress and signed by George Washington"
Hence the need for the 1792 decreed money or coinage act...
Now there were 100's of chartered and unchartered commercial banks operating in the USA all during the so called Revolutionary war...and they used all those Continentals as collateral for loans...and inflated the debt supply of the colonies massively and there was massive hyperinflation and after the so called war eneded in 1783 the Continentals were not printed anymore and the hyperinflation (leveraging of old debts to create new debts to service the old debts at the resquest of the consumer) could not be sustained and the economy in the colonies suffered a hyperdeflationary implosion...The index of all commodity prices fell from 226 to 85...The Depression of the 1780's...Ever hear about it? History is written by the winners...ever hear that one...Well below must be the account of a loser...
"With trade at a standstill, farm produce a drug in the market, no employment for common labor, and little spiecie in circulation, court judgments for debts or overdue taxes could in most cases be enforced only by stripping a farmer of his real estate, his cattle, and his furniture. In Worcester County alone, 92 persons were imprisoned for debt in 1785"
--Historian Samuel Eliot Morison.
In some places the economy imploded so deeply that grass grew waist high in the streets...
Or how about this account...of the civil war...Between the rich and poor made poor by the rich...
"As the situation worsened in 1786 armed bands of impoverished debtors forcibly prohibited courts from sitting including the Court of Quarter Sessions in Worcester County. Violence was most intense in New England and the Northeast, where population pressures combined with depleted soil to press subsistance farmers to desperation. Rioting mobs intent on preventing the enforcement of judgements against debtors struck in many areas, including New York, Connececut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts."
"In Massachusetts, Connececut, and Rhode Island the discontent was organized along military lines. thousands of men, commanded by continental army Veterans and current officers of the Massachusetts state militia, were organized into rebel regiments."
The most important military engagement of these revolts was Shays's Rebellion, a battle for a Federal arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts, on January 25, 1787.
"Their Creed is, that the property of the United States has been protected from the confiscations of Britain by the joint exeritions of all, and therefore ought to be the common property of all; and he that attempts opposition to this creed is an enemy to equality and justice and ought to be swept from the face of the Earth"-General Henry (Fort) Knox Commander, U.S. Government forces, on New England rebels in 1786
"What is to give us [Richmen] security against the violence of lawless men [poormen]? Our Governemt must be braced, changed or altered to secure our lives and property"-General Henry (Fort) Knox Commander, U.S. Government forces to General George Washinton 1786
The above effects were after all the consequences of all that money the congress of Richmen decreed into existence to entice the poormen to fight the so called revolutionary war...
In the WAR to defeat GOD it's a richman's war and a poorman's fight...
Lawless men you say? Men have no power to make or break the LAW of GOD...Or law...Truth...Men can't make or break Truth...Freewill allows men to attempt to but provides no power to make or break truth because Truth is infinite and indestructible...Unbreakable. It is the source of all power that those who choose to attempt to break Truth employ attempting to break it.
All men can do is make and break rules and call them LAW...Richmen make and break the rules and call them LAWS that it is against the rules or LAW for poormen, poorwomen, and poorchildren to make or break...
When a richman commands a poorman to die then you better die or you are attempting to break the richman's rule that the richmen make and break and call LAW...
The states all had different currencies?
In 1723 Pennsylvania made its first issue of paper currency. It issued, in March, paper bills of credit to the amount of $60,000, made them a legal tender in all payments on pain of confiscating the debt or forfeiting the commodity, imposed sufficient penalties on all persons who presumed to make any bargain or sale on cheaper terms in case of being paid in gold or silver, and provided for the gradual reduction of the bills by enacting that one-eighth of the principal, as well as the whole interest, should be paid annually. It made no loans but on land security or plate deposited in the loan office, and obliged borrowers to pay 5 % for the sums they took up. The scheme worked so well that, in the latter end of the year, the government emitted bills to the amount of $150,000 on the same terms. In 1729 there was a new emission of $150,000 to be reduced one-sixteenth a year.
"Very little money had been in circulation in the Massachusetts colony during its earlier years, for what coin the settlers brought with them soon went back to England to pay for imported articles. Taxes were paid in grain and cattle, at rates fixed by the General Court. Every new set of emigrants brought some money with them, and the lively demand for corn and cattle on the part of the new-comers raised the prices to a high pitch. When the political changes in England stopped emigration, prices fell, and a corresponding difficulty was felt in paying debts. In 1640 the legislature of Massachusetts enacted that grain, at different prices for different sorts, should be a legal tender for the payment of all debts. To prevent sacrifices of property in cases of inability to pay, corn, cattle, and other personal goods, or, in default of such goods, the home and lands of the debtor, when taken in execution, were to be delivered to the creditor in full satisfaction, at such value as they might be appraised at by "three intelligent and indifferent men" — one to be chosen by the creditor, another by the debtor, and a third by the marshal. Beaver skins were also paid and received as money, and held a place next to coin in the public estimation. At one time musket-balls, at one farthing each, were made legal tender. "
In 1645 the legislature of Virginia prohibited dealing by barter, and abolished tobacco as currency. They established the Spanish dollar, or "piece of eight," at six shillings, as the standard of currency for that colony. In 1655 the "piece of eight" was changed from six shillings to five shillings sterling as the standard of currency.
See you all were never free...Just told you were or were fighting for it and you all believed the lies you were told over an over again by those Rich in power and money and eventualy the delusions became cherished...
The American and French revolutions and Russian revolutions were City of London operations.
The City of London ran the Revolutionary war...Just like they ran the French Revolution which was followed by the creation of the Central bank of France and the Russian Revolution followed by the creation of the Central bank of Bank of Russia...
Napoleon was installed by the Crown...First thing Napoleon did after the French Revolution was decree the creation of the Banque de France 18 January 1800...
"The Banque de France was created on 18 January 1800 by Napoléon Bonaparte, who was then First Consul, to foster renewed economic growth in the wake of the deep recession of the Revolutionary period. The new Bank's task was to issue bank notes payable to the bearer on sight in exchange for discounted commercial bills."
"On October 25, 1917, the Bolsheviks seized the State Bank building in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), but it was only until two months later that they actually took control of the bank and its operations. In the morning of December 14 the Bolsheviks seized the Petrograd commercial banks and later in the evening the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) issued a decree on the nationalisation of banks, establishing a state monopoly on banking. Private credit institutions were nationalised and merged with the State Bank, which a month later was renamed the People’s Bank of the Russian Republic (still later it was renamed the People’s Bank of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR))."
"The Second (Central) Bank of the United States was chartered for many of the same reasons as its predecessor, the First Bank of the United States. The War of 1812 had left a formidable debt. Inflation surged ever upward due to the ever-increasing amount of notes issued by private banks. Specie was jealously hoarded. For these reasons President Madison signed a bill authorizing the 2nd Bank in 1816 with a charter lasting 20 years."
Interesting...Revolution/War...Then poof Central bank pops into existence...
Fifth Plank of the so called Communist Manifesto 1848: "Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly."
The most important plank needed to help fund all the others...
The Bank of England popped into existence in 1694...Well before the 1848 so called Communist Manifesto...
"London was still at the top of the financial pyramid with New York"-Alan Greenspan K.B.E. September 25, 2002 in a speech to business leaders and dignitaries at both the Treasury and the Bank of England after receiving his K.B.E...Or Knight Commander of the British Empire...By Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms [USA] and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.